Layers of Printed Circuit Board

July 8th, 2015by Hazel Bender

PCB CircuitIn an integrated circuit, the flat material or board to which circuit components – transistors, resistors, etc. – are mounted is called printed circuit board. Sometimes, the term “printed circuit board” (often abbreviated as PCB) is wrongly used to mean the entire assembly of a PCB including the mounted components. The correct term to designate the board alone is “printed wiring board” or “etched wiring board.” A printed circuit board mounted with electronic components is called “printed circuit board assembly” (PCBA) or “printed circuit assembly” (PCA).

Nevertheless, most people use the term PCB to designate both unassembled and assembled PCBs.

Printed circuit boards are characterized by plated-through holes and lines of etched copper foil. Each electric component has wire or lead ends. This lead ends are inserted into the holes on one side of the PCB and secured on the other side by soldering.

The electric components are connected to one another through the etched copper foil that serves as conductive metal pathways. The printed copper foil functions like the wires in a traditional electric circuit.

Printed circuit boards are made of layers of conducting and non-conducting materials. The innermost layer is called substrate or base metal. It must be made of non-conducting material.

The substrate is usually made of fiber or woven glass, but sometimes plastic or cotton paper is used. The popularly used glass in PCB industry is FR4 which is essentially fiberglass. Other materials that can be used for substrate are FR6 (polyester and matte glass), FR5 (glass and epoxy), FR3 (cotton paper), FR2 (phenol cotton paper). A known plastic used as substrate is Kapton.

The substrate is the main part of a printed circuit board. It constitutes more than 85 percent of the entire board. The quality and rigidity of the entire printed circuit board lies in the type of material used as substrate.

High-temperature plastic and cotton paper is less expensive but less durable than fiberglass. Cotton paper has a tendency to delaminate when exposed too long to the soldering iron. Thus, cotton paper and plastic are commonly used to produce low quality circuit electronics.

The second layer of all printed circuit boards is a conducting copper foil. This layer is carefully etched on the surface of the non-conducting substrate. It can be etched manually but modern technology allows efficient etching with the use of photolithography.

Copper foil is where electric current flows. It connects the electric components with one another. Holes are intentionally drilled on most lines and fields of copper foil since leads of components are inserted there for connection.

Printed circuit boards are either single or double-sided. Single-sided ones have copper foil on one side, while those that are double-sided have copper on both sides. The copper foil placed may range from 1 to 16 layers. Most PCBs have an ounce of copper foil per square meter. Printed circuit boards used for high powered applications have 2 to 3 ounces of copper foil to handle more electric current.

After the copper foil layer is the soldermask layer. Its purpose is to insulate the copper foil layer against unwanted contacts. Remember that copper foil traces and fields are intended to contact only the leads or wires of the electric components. Accidental contact with unintended objects may cause circuit problems.

The soldermask also guides the user or assembler where to solder by giving a green color to the PCB. Areas intended for soldering is not covered in green such as the SMD pads and silver rings. Green is the widely known color of soldermask but other colors such as red and purple are also used.

PCB DesignSilkscreen is the last and outermost layer of a PCB. It’s used to paint letters numbers and other symbols to help the assembler know where to place the components. Text printed using silkscreen is usually white.

Given these facts, one thing should be clear to you by now – PCBs, despite being thin and simple-looking, are among the most complicated components of modern devices.

Portable Storage Containers versus Other Storage Options

June 16th, 2015by Beth Woodard

Have you tried using portable storage containers for your moving- and storage-related needs? Surely, it was not that popular before. Also, the novel idea of having a container instead of a truck waiting outside your house for loading is not that a usual concept back in the days. But with more advanced developments happening in this world, everything is possible. The traditional way of moving – the hiring of trucks and movers – is now almost considered obsolete. Even the other storage options offered back then are now becoming less popular. Why? Continue reading the article below to find out.

Portable storage containers has become a better choice for many because it is much more convenient compared to other storage options. Because storage companies used to provide only the storage unit, people are having a hard time and actually spend more energy in the process of transporting their items.

portable storage containerIn the regular storage options, you have to load the things up inside the truck, travel to their storage facility, and unload your things in your rented storage unit. If you are not yet done clearing up some mess in your house, then you have to go back and travel again. Sounds difficult, right? Also, if you happen to have something that you need to keep in their storage unit, you have to go to their facility and get to the unit yourself. You will also have to wait for their facility to open on regular office hours, as most of them do not operate for 24 hours.

Other people also worry about the security of their goods kept in their storage units. Because other people who also rent storage units in their facility can also come inside, some are afraid that their valuables might be stolen without their staff noticing.

As of this moment, there is no need to worry about these issues anymore. Those who use the services of storage companies offering portable storage containers are very happy and satisfied because compared to the regular storage units offered back then, the process of moving and storing items is way easier. Instead of a truck, a movable storage container will be delivered right outside your door. It is only positioned on ground level. This makes it easier for you to bring your goods inside the container than lifting the boxes up the ramp.

If you have lots of big and heavy furniture at home, these storage providers also have professional movers as staff. They can help you move this furniture easily, without damaging your precious goods. After you have successfully loaded all your stuff, you do not need to go to their facility to unload your things. The storage container becomes your storage unit, and only you can open it. You can tend to other important things because there will be no need to travel to their facility regularly. Once you are ready to move into your new house, just call your storage company and they will deliver the movable storage container into your new location.

Much easier than the previous process above? Here’s more. If you have items that you need, let us say Christmas decors for instance, you can just call the storage provider and they will deliver the portable storage containers at your doorstep. You will open it yourself, get the things you need. As soon as your finished, they will bring the storage container with them back at the facility. Everything is easier this way with the use of these portable storage containers.

It is not really a wonder why more and more people are enjoying the services of companies that provide those movable storage containers. With today’s busy world, we all need such easier and cheaper storage options.

Author Bio:
www.moveablecontainer.com provide portable storage containers, cubicle storage containers, movable storage, mobile office, and temporary storage throughout the US. Moveable Container Storage is a one-stop shop for all your storage needs.

Why Motivational Speakers Matter

March 30th, 2015by Sue Reilly

Motivational speakers have a big role in the society. They help others realize their potential, give people the strength to follow their dreams and inspire others to become a better person. They are very influential in shaping the future of their audiences.

A motivational speaker matters. Be it in the small company of students and teenagers who have problems in their studies of unsure of what career to take or businessmen who are troubled by their financial problems. A motivational speaker can help boost the morale and confidence of people around them. Here are some of the important roles that motivational speakers play in the society.

motivational speakerMotivational speakers help inspire their audience to become more efficient and motivate them to foster a positive change in their lives. They help audience realize their potential and strengths by giving real life situations and personal experiences of overcoming obstacles and problems that audience can relate with. They are also a source of strength and joy, most often providing laughter and jokes to help their audience feel more comfortable, at ease and interested in the speech.

They are also key persons in helping employers of companies improve their output and efficiency. It boosts the morale of the workers and helps them foster a good and harmonious working relationship with their colleagues and departments heads.

www.motivational-speaker-success.com offer speeches that aim to encourage and inspire their listeners. They help assist their audience to create life goals and plans. They guide them to do well in the industry they work in, motivate them to develop a more positive and optimistic approach in their career and life. They provide a heartwarming message to their audience and at the same time delivers lively speech that the audience will remember easily and help them in times of problem and troubles.

They also help their audience realize that every person experiences problems and downfalls. What makes each person different is how they respond to these situations. Oftentimes, they use real life examples based from past experiences to help them make a point to their audience. It also illustrates the effects of their actions and response to certain situation.

A motivational speaker also helps the audience to focus on their goals, to come up with brilliant ideas and positive insights that will help improve their performance in their chosen career or path. They help their audience draw on their strengths and inspiration to help them carry on with their lives, relationships and career. In a way, they help the audience prepare for what’s in store for them in the future.

But one of the most important reasons why motivational speakers can be helpful is how they enable other people to envision the life that they want. They draw out the courage and passion from their listeners and encourage them to become brave and strong in facing their challenged and helps them realize how important it is to celebrate their life, their success and how failures will mold them into stronger and better persons. They are a source of strength and inspiration, a role model to look up to and an example of how optimism and happiness can help you achieve your goals in life.

You might think that being a motivational speaker is easy, but it’s not an easy task. They are always looked upon by people as a strength and inspiration that they have to be strong and brave. For their audience, they serve as a beacon of light guiding them on a dark and confusing path. They are very important to the society, a driving force that strengthens and motivates those around them to be a better person.

HCG Drops Create Natural Losses For Weight

February 23rd, 2015by Michael Basquez

Read through any manual that is meant for learning how to lose weight, and you’re going to see that there are a lot of options that you should consider. Of course, some options are going to give you more balance than others, but the end results are always going to be the thing that you need to succeed within. If you work on the right pieces, you will see results manifest with relative ease. Most people don’t understand this, and that’s why things can get confusing. If you’re truly looking to end up with a positive solution over time, make sure that you consider a few tips that are based on tried and true options. The following are just a few options that you should consider within the ideals of exercise, diet, and hcg drops for ultimate weight loss.

Find Something You Love

HCG dropsFirst things first, you are not going to be able to lose a ton of weight with just hcg drops alone. These are great, but they are not the only things that you should be looking into. Find something that helps you move around a bit, exercise specific. If you find a good piece of exercise that you don’t mind doing, you are going to end up doing it all the time, and things will pan out well for you. Of course, if you find that you don’t really like to do this, than by all means, you could try to work with just supplements alone. However, if you are serious about results, you need to find exercise that is going to give you a push in the right direction.

Eat Right

The next thing that you should be looking for is eating the right things. Eating right is not something that you should assume is just a matter of omission. So many people think that you need to omit a lot of food if you’re going to lose weight, and that’s not true. Yes, you can reduce caloric intake, but that’s not the whole picture in regards to losing weight. It’s just part of the picture, and something that you should definitely consider as you try to leverage the right components overall.

In order to eat right, find a way to balance lean meats, vegetables, and fruits. These will help you get energy, nutrients, and calories that are healthy. Of course, this is just a branch of the bigger picture. You’ll need to supplement the nutrients that you’re not getting through the use of hcg drops. This can help you get into the right framework and establish good solutions that will pay off down the line. The goal is to give the body as many tools as possible to get moving in the right direction, and this is a big thing.

Take Small Steps

One of the best tips that you can take away with you right now is in regards to starting these lifestyle changes. Make sure that you look into making changes slowly. You do not have to change 180 degrees overnight. Too many people today think that they have to fight this in a complicated manner, but that’s not the truth. You can work on things little by little until you’re at a place where you want to be. It takes time to be forever changed, so don’t rush through this and lose sight of the bigger picture. Take your time, and see how balancing weight loss with exercise, nutrition, and hcg drops can really deliver on the long term elements you need for success with weight management. It’s definitely something that can be a good thing.


January 22nd, 2015by Gretchen Goldstein

It’s been quite much of a norm nowadays for people to be more or less concerned with their body built. And that does not only come along the talks of athletes and people who have crossed the morbid obesity line so far down the road, this is on a more surprisingly general scale. From people belonging to the older generation to normal office workers, to even the youngest of teenagers, all seem to get hyped in shifting to a healthier lifestyle. And by what other means can a person possibly show good health, other than by being so sufficiently muscular? It’s as if that kind of thinking has surfaced in the minds of the masses simultaneously upon reaching a certain age, being fed and grown by advertisements and societal stereotypes.

In this day and age, people have developed certain glorification over humps and bulks that are muscles. Muscles have somewhat become the standard for good health. But deviating from the health talk, they are actually looked up to, more often than not for reasons that barely relate to health.

uniquemicalsPeople love muscles because they are, by instinct, attractive. Muscles boost the self-esteem or confidence of the person who successfully achieves them. In a way, muscles also impose authority, as almost nobody would dare fight against muscle-bound individuals. At the same time, muscles depict the person’s capability to maintain discipline. Muscle is also necessary, especially if you are an athlete. Whether you are a male or a female, having muscles is actually much of an advantage.

With the health and non-health reasons mentioned above combined and laid down, it’s no wonder achieving muscles have become a truly big deal. That’s why instead of exerting double effort for working out and eating healthy for a painfully long amount of time, certain people prefer taking the easy way, and that involves the use of medication, particularly anabolic steroids. But because of the damaging health effects brought about by these substances, anabolic steroids have been declared illegal and cannot be acquired unless prescribed by a physician. As an alternative, people buy prohormones instead.

Prohormones are synthetic compounds which are converted into active hormones through enzymes in the liver. Athletes, bodybuilders, and nonmedical steroid users often buy prohormones to achieve the results expected from taking anabolic steroids without the legal risks.

Prohormones are prevalent among bodybuilders and athletes because besides the fact that they can increase muscle mass, prohormones can also enlarge the size of a person in general, as well as improve his strength, endurance, speed, and so many other physical factors. But not only to athletes and bodybuilders do these drugs appeal. There are also life extension groups that buy prohormones for hormone replacement therapy instead of prescription drug use. Add to that the fact that despite of the government’s strict monitoring on the said drugs, there still are types that aren’t declared illegal. In short, using prohormones is, legally speaking, safe.

With the illegalization of anabolic steroids and the emergence of the alternative, different chemical stores selling prohormones have also come to light. Those businesses provide not only chemicals for research use, but offer particular drugs for public consumption as well. Among others, prohormones and SARMs are available so you can buy prohormones anytime you like over the internet.

These synthetically manufactured compounds are perhaps the closest thing to the illegal substance that wouldn’t get its users in trouble with the authorities. And whether you take these prohormones as medication or you’re a bodybuilder (or athlete) who definitely needs improvement, you’ll definitely see improvements. And as long as the drug is used responsibly, there would be not a problem with using it.

More Than Just An ID Holder: The Different Uses of Lanyards

January 20th, 2015by Jean Brown

In an age where smartphones are prized for compressing the functions of mobile phones, computers, mp3 players, GPS tracking devices, and calculators into one sleek gadget, multi-tasking is clearly the watchword. It’s no longer enough for an invention to serve a single purpose, and conversely, savvy shoppers are forever looking for ways to stretch the usefulness of their purchases.

ID lanyardsID lanyards are no different, especially when one considers the reason behind their current popularity. Students, government or company employees, and event organizers usually wear them to schools, offices, and specific occasions, respectively. Since security and perhaps even exclusivity are paramount in the said locations, having one’s ID out in the open is important for its bearer to have instant access. But because ID lanyards are now very much part of most uniforms, their manufacturers have begun to make different sorts of attachments to serve a multitude of purposes while wearers have come up with creative ways to maximize their use.

Apart from holding ID cards, badges, and other similar forms of identification, ID lanyards can also be used to:

• Prevent keys from being misplaced.

Key chains might be a more common option, but ID lanyards with special hooks for keys allow users to wear keys around their neck. This makes it harder to drop the keys while they are in use, and also makes it easier for those in a hurry to unlock doors or boxes since they wouldn’t have to fish the keys out of a bag or purse.

• Accessorize or personalize electronic gadgets.

Most smartphones or mp3 players are equipped with a tiny hole at the top that allow for a lanyard to be looped around it. Some lanyards that come with nifty little accessories like Swarovski crystals or colored beads are popular among gadget users who want to put a more personal touch on their belongings. A few companies have even come up with ID lanyards that also function as earphones.

• Serve as a safety strap for those operating heavy or dangerous machinery.

In some workplaces, ID lanyards worn by workers can be attached to the main switches of the machines that they operate so that in case they pass out and fall, the lanyards will pull on the switch and shut off the machine.

• Secure small instruments meant for self-defense.

For those walking the streets late at night, lanyards can be attached to tiny canisters of pepper spray or Swiss knives. This way, the user can wield them more readily if the need arises. The sight of such items around the neck of a pedestrian could also be a deterrent to those who mean to attack.

• Keep sunglasses or eyeglasses from getting lost.

Lanyards can be temporarily looped around one’s spectacles so that they don’t fall off, especially at outdoor activities.

• Put identification tags on pets.

Lanyards can make great makeshift leashes for pets. An added bonus is owners can put their pet’s name and emergency information on the accompanying cards.

• Hold camping essentials in one place.

Lanyards made of heavy-duty or perhaps even waterproof material are ideal for this purpose. Roughing it out in the woods can be easier if certain tools like compasses, utility knives, or lighters were all attached to one lanyard, and thus more readily available.

Clearly, with a little ingenuity, coming up with multiple uses for even the simplest gadget isn’t too hard. Sometimes, the process ends up opening one’s eyes to a whole lot of other possibilities that they never would have considered otherwise. And in a world where plenty of unnecessary wastes abound, that sort of mindset is always a plus.